Caroline Smith


  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Pennsylvania State University (2010-2013)
  • Specialization: Thermal and microvascular physiology
  • Ph.D. Loughborough University, UK (2005-2009)
  • Specialization; Thermal Physiology
  • B.Sc. (Hons) Human Biology, Loughborough University, UK (2002-2005)

Current Teaching

  • ES 2032: Human Physiology
  • ES 4300: Environmental Physiology
  • ES 5200: Exercise Science Seminar

Professional Affiliations

  • American Physiological Society
  • American College of Sports Medicine

Laboratory Affiliation

  • Thermal and Microcirculation (Director)

Research Interests

  • Examining in vivo and in vitro signaling mechanisms underlying thermoregulatory and microvascular dysfunction in diabetic and cardiovascular disease populations, and the impact of exercise and thermal interventions on vascular responses. Current research studies include examining changes in eccrine sweating and vascular function with heat therapy in hyperglycemic and diabetic patients, and elucidating the mechanisms by which metformin improves vascular function in type II diabetes mellitus.

Research Publications

  • Smith, C.J. Pediatric Thermoregulation: Considerations in the Face of Global Climate Change. Nutrients, 26;11(9), 2019. doi: 10.3390/nu11092010.    
  • Smith, C.J. and Havenith, G. Upper body sweat mapping provides evidence of relative sweat redistribution towards the periphery following hot-dry heat acclimation.Temperature. 7;6(1):50-65, 2019. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2019.1570777.
  • Smith CJ, Craighead DH, Alexander LM. (2017). Effects of vehicle microdialysis solutions on cutaneous vascular responses to local heating. J Appl Physiol. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00498.2017. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Craighead, D.H., Smith, C.J., and Alexander, L.M. (2017). Blood pressure normalization via pharmacotherapy improves cutaneous microvascular function through NO-dependent and independent-medchanisms. Microcirculation. 2017 Oct;24(7). doi: 10.1111/micc.12382.]
  •  Smith C.J. and Johnson, J. (2016). Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans. Auton Neurosci. 196:25-36. 
  • Alley, J.R., Mazzochi, J.W., Smith, C.J.Morris, D.M., and S.R. Collier. (2015). Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure. J Strength Cond Res.29(5):1378-1385.
  • Smith, C.J., Alexander, L.M., and W.L. Kenney. (2013). Non-Uniform, Age-Related Decrements in Regional Sweating and Skin Blood Flow. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 305(8):R877-R88
  • Smith, C.J., Santhanam, L., and L.M. Alexander. (2013). Rho-Kinase activity and cutaneous vasoconstriction is upregulated in essential hypertensive humans. Microvasc Res.87:58-64
  • Smith, C.J., Kenney, W.L., and L.M. Alexander. (2013). Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 304:R566-R573
  • Smith, C.J., Machado-Moreira, C.A., Plant, G., Hodder, S., Havenith, G. and N.A.S. Taylor. (2012). Design Data for Footwear - Sweating Distribution on the Human Foot. Int. J. Clothing Science and Technology. 25(1):43-58.
  • Smith, C.J. and G. Havenith. (2012). Body Mapping of Sweating Patterns in Athletes: A Sex Comparison. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 44(12):2350-2361
  • Bruning, R.S., Santhanam, L., Stanhewicz, A.E., Smith, C. J., Berkowitz, D.E., Kenney W.L., and L.A. Holowatz. (2012). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates cutaneous vasodilation during local heating and is attenuated in middle-aged human skin. J Appl Physiol. 112:2019-2026
  • Stanhewicz, A.E., Bruning, R.S., Smith, C.J., Kenney, W.L., and L.A. Holowatz. (2012). Local tetrahydrobiopterin administration augments reflex cutaneous vasodilation through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms in aged human skin. J Appl Physiol. 112: 791-797
  • Smith, C.J., Santhanam, L., Bruning, R.S., Stanhewicz, A.E., Berkowitz, D.E., and L.A. Holowatz. (2011). Upregulation of iNOS contributes to attenuated eNOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in essential hypertensive humans. Hypertension. 58:935-942
  • Smith, C.J., and G. Havenith. (2011). Body mapping of sweating patterns in male athletes in mild exercise induced hyperthermia. Eur J Appl Physiol. 111(7):1391-1404
  • Havenith, G., Fogarty, A., Bartlett, B., Smith, C.J., and V. Ventenat. (2008). Male and female upper body sweat distribution during running measured with technical absorbents. Eur J Appl Physiol. 104:245-255
  • Alley, J.R., Mazzochi, J.W., Smith, C.J., Morris, D.M., and S.R. Collier. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure. J Strength Cond Res.29(5):1378-1385, 2015.
Title: Associate Professor, PhD, Thermal Physiology, Graduate Faculty

Email address: Email me

Phone: (828) 265-8652

Fax: (828) 262-3138

Office address
Leon Levine Hall 406